Publications & Resources

The Use of Within-Group Slopes as Indices of Group Outcomes

Dec 1981

Leigh Burstein, M. David Miller, and Robert L. Linn

The possibilities and problems in th euse of within-group slopes of outcomes on inputs as indicators of substantive group effects are considered. Slopes are proposed as outcome measures which may reflect within-group processes in between-group analyses of multilevel data. Research on aptitude × treatment interactions, contextual effects and school effects provide a theoretical rationale for the proposed methodology. Data from the IEA Six Subject Survey are used to illustrate how a group-level analysis with slopes as outcomes might look. Finally, the statistical, empirical, substantive, and communication problems that arise from the use of slopes as outcomes are discussed.

Burstein, L., Miller, M. D., & Linn, R. L. (1981). The use of within-group slopes as indices of group outcomes (CSE Report 171). Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, Center for the Study of Evaluation.