Publications & Resources

Standards-to-Standards Linkage Under Title III: Exploring Common Language Demands in ELD and Science Standards

Dec 2005

Alison L. Bailey, Frances A. Butler, and Edynn Sato

Under Title III of the No Child Left Behind Act ([NCLB], 2001b) every state needs to show linkage between state content standards and state English language development (ELD) standards as input to the development of state English proficiency tests. This paper argues that Title III presents a unique opportunity to explore how different content standards can be linked on a common dimension. The paper focuses on evaluating the degree to which content standards, such as English language arts (ELA) and science standards, overlap with ELD standards in terms of implicit and explicit language demands placed on students. This helps ensure that language learners are exposed to types of language that will assist them in being successful in academic contexts.

Bailey, A. L., Butler, F. A., & Sato, E. (2005). Standards-to-standards linkage under Title III: Exploring common language demands in ELD and science standards (CSE Report 667). Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST).